Revisión Taxonómica y Estado de Conservación de las Especies de Eryngium (Apiaceae, Saniculoideae) Presentes en Chile
Eryngium L. comprises ca. 250 species and is distributed in every continent, except Antarctica. The species of the genus that inhabit Chile are mostly endemic to that country and are phylogenetically closely related to species from the west coast of the United States of America and Australia. Taxonomic studies of the North American and Australian lineages of Eryngium are in press or in preparation. However, the Eryngium species from Chile have not been revised taxonomically for more than a century. Moreover, many of the species of the genus endemic to Chile show restricted distributions and, therefore, deserve particular attention to evaluate if they are in any category of threat in order to develop conservation policies. The objective of this study is to perform a taxonomic revision of the species of Eryngium from Chile, including an analysis of their conservation status. For this purpose, the vegetative and reproductive morphology and the geographic distribution and habitat of ca. 750 herbarium specimens were analyzed. In addition, the conservation status of the species was evaluated following the Red List categories and criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In total, 17 species of Eryngium were recognized in Chile, of which 15 are endemic to that country and two also grow in Argentina. A key for the recognition of species is provided. For each species, a list of accepted synonyms, a morphological description, illustration, distribution map, habitats, phenology, and vernacular names are presented. Six new synonyms are proposed (Eryngium polyrhizum Clos and all varieties of E. depressum Hook. & Arn. are synonymized with E. depressum, E. amethystinodes Kuntze is synonymized with E. rostratum Cav., and E. delarocheanum H. Wolff is synonymized with E. paniculatum Cav. & Dombey ex F. Delaroche), and nomenclature problems were analyzed and resolved, including the typification of 23 names. The distribution ranges of six species (Eryngium anomalum Hook. & Arn., E. coquimbanum Phil. ex Urb., E. depressum, E. humifusum Clos, E. pulchellum Phil., and E. rostratum) are rectified. Aproximately 60% of the Eryngium species from Chile belong to a category of threat, and most of them are critically endangered, so they should be special targets for conservation.